This report is compiled by the US department of Justice, Bureau of statistics because of a directive in the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 which requires yearly documentation, analysis, and reporting of sexual assault in the prison system. While some distinctions were made between populations at private and public institutions, the statistics did not attempt to compare instances of sexual assaults explicitly between these two groups.
A growing prison population, and a growing trend of privatizing institutions leads to a complicated experience for women in the prison system.
By themselves each of these facts are troubling:
- “There are 148,200 women in state and federal prisons. In federal women’s correctional facilities, 70% of guards are male.”
- “Guards threaten the prisoner’s children and visitation rights as a means of silencing the women.”
- “From 1986 to 1996 the number of women sentenced to state prison for drug crimes increased ten-fold.”
- “Women are often denied essential medical resources and treatments, especially during times of pregnancy and/or chronic and degenerative diseases.”
- “An African American woman is eight times more likely than a European American woman is to be imprisoned; African American women make up nearly half of the nation’s female prison population”
It is essential that a successful agreement happens in the United Nations’ Conference of the Parties (COP21) in 2015. A successful agreement would not only require participation from all or nearly all industrialized countries, but it would also require that ambitious goals are made. IPIECA is an association that was created in response to the United Nations Environmental program and advocates for policies for 38 oil and gas companies, including all the major international companies. As policy-makers progress to make ambitious goals in the upcoming year, IPIECA may help or hinder the success of policy changes. As the demands for energy increase, it has to be realized that coal, oil, and gas have to make significant changes and sacrifices if the agreement is to be a success. I will need to do more research into IPIECA and the World Coal Association to determine what position they will take in COP21 in 2015.
IPIECA seems to be heavily involved in many climate change groups such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and is invested in the CO2 Capture Project. Given the involvement of IPIECA in many programs and panels, and the realistic goals for global energy use in 2035 (shown below), it seems that IPIECA may actually be a source for alternative solutions, and an association to integrate solutions with. Perhaps, IPIECA does not actually share all the same views as the companies that have memberships and instead has more ambitious goals than oil and gas companies would like; however, their involvement with the United Nations makes their position vital in my discussion.
Energy companies, such as ExxonMobil, do not have a strong stance for sustainability, and are one of the most powerful institutions for making changes. ExxonMobil’s energy report shows a general lack of initiative to transfer out of coal and oil. Instead they adopt a “follow the money” policy, even though they are the economic leader of the industry. Furthermore, they have the ability to lobby government to prevent the institutionalized transfer to more sustainable energy sources.
ExxonMobil’s CEO, Rex. Tillerson stated at a speech in Houston that “There is no question that energy has been one of the foundations of U.S. economic strength for most of our nation’s history. In recent years the growth in domestic oil and gas production has been an important economic driver that extends far beyond our sector – delivering benefits to a wide range of Americans, businesses, and every level of government.’ Here, it does not seem as if the CEO intends to change directions on energy sources. However, in ExxonMobil’s Climate and Energy Report it says that “We are taking prudent steps on many fronts to address the risks posed by a changing climate, and we also continue to engage the public and policy makers in many ways regarding the issue.” This contradictory speaking reveals a startling truth about ExxonMobil’s true plan for the future. The climate and energy report is most likely to be read by someone who cares about the environment, and this paper is framed to show “dedication” to cleaner energy technologies. ExxonMobil also drastically underestimates the rising levels of CO2 emissions in these reports, and contributes these reductions to “improvements in energy efficiency” that are both finite, and not actually happening. (ExxonMobil Energy Report)
ExxonMobil claims it has a strict policy, but ExxonMobil is likely biased in their policies towards climate change, as well as the future of the energy industry. Shareholders of ExxonMobil would benefit from perpetuating the notion that lobbying is difficult, that climate change is distant and does not have the potential to be impactful, and that the future of the energy industry is set in stone.
My goal is to use my businesses sources to find the views of big energy businesses, and how they present a danger to the climate future. I hope to determine what influence IPIECA and WCA have on UN decisions, and use this to aid in my predictions/discussions. I hope to find other businesses that also show a strong potential to act as competition to these coal, oil and gas industries, and show potential for growth with sustainable technologies, attacking the idea that eliminating coal and oil from our “diet” would not hurt our economic health.
“Climate Change.” The Oil and Gas Industry and Rio 20. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 11 Dec. 2014. <http://rio20.ipieca.org/fact-sheets/climate-change>.